There are two types of flags in Islam.
The other is termed as Ar-Raya and is used by the Muslim army. The Raya of the Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) was a piece of black wool with the words لآ اِلهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ مُحَمَّدُ رَّسُوْلُ اللّهِ written on it.
Therefore, the Liwaa is a white flag with black inscription and the Raya is a black flag with white inscription .
The Prophet had informed the people of the martyrdom of Zaid, Ja'far and Ibn Rawaha before the news of their death reached. The Prophet said, "Zaid took the flag (as the commander of the army) and was martyred, then Ja'far took it and was martyred, and then Ibn Rawaha took it (Ar Raya) and was martyred." At that time the Prophet's eyes were shedding tears. He added, "Then the flag was taken by a Sword amongst the Swords of Allah (i.e. Khalid) and Allah made them (i.e. the Muslims) victorious."
Military Expeditions led by the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) - (Al-Maghaazi) - Bukhari : Book 5 : Volume 59 : Hadith 561
Al-Barra’a Ibnu Azeb (ra) was asked about the Messenger’s (Peace Be Upon Him) Raya. He said: “It was black, had four corners and was made of wool.”
These and other ahadith clearly prove that Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) had designated a flag for his Ummah.
The Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) of Allah conquered and entered Makkah with a Liwaa (white flag)
Abu Abdullah Nuaim Ibn Hammad on a chain of transmission on the authority of Al Zuhari who said " The black flags will come from the East, led by mighty men, with long hair and beards, their surnames are taken from the names of their home towns (i.e. Khosti or from Khost etc.) and their first names are from a "Kunya"
(Asmal Masalik Lieyyam Mahdiyy Maliki Li Kull-id Dunya Biemrillah-il Malik, Qalda bin Zayd)
Hadhrat Buraidah (R.A.) says that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "There will be many armies after me. You must join that army which will come from Khurasaan."
On the authority of Thawbaan (May Allah be pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah said:
"If you see the Black Banners coming from Khurasan go to them immediately, even if you must crawl over ice, because indeed amongst them is the Caliph, Al Mahdi."
[Narrated on authority of Ibn Majah, Al-Hakim, Ahmad]
Narrated by Abdur Rehman Al-Jarshi that I heard companion of Dear Prophet(salallaho alayhay wa sallam), Hazrat Amr Bin Marra Al-jamli(R.A) that Dear Prophet(salallaho alayhay wa sallam) said: Surely Black Flag will appear from the Khorasan until the people(under the leadership of this flag) will tie their horses with the Olive Trees between Bait-e-Lahya and Harasta. We asked are there any Olive trees between these places. He said,”If there isn’t then soon it will grow so that those people(of Khorasan) will come and tie their horses there.”
[Ref: Kitab-al-Fitan Page 215. Also at Page 108 in the book “Islam main Imam Mahdi ka Tasawer” by Maulana Professor Muhammad Yousaf Khan,Jamia Ashrafia Lahore,Pakistan.]
Harasta (Arabic: حرستا , transliteration: Ḥarastā) , also known as Harasta al-Basal, is a Syrian city administratively belonging to Rif Dimashq. Harasta has an altitude of 702 meters. It has a population of 38,184 as of 2007, making it the 43rd largest city per geographical entity in Syria.
Beit Lahia (Arabic: بيت لاهيا or بيت لاهية) is a town under Palestinian Authority of about 40,000 people in the northern Gaza Strip. It is located north of Jabalia, near Beit Hanoun and the border with Israel. Hamas, an Islamic party, took control of it during the 2005 municipal elections.
The word “Lahia” is Syriac and means “desolate” or “tiresome”. It is surrounded by sand dunes, some rise to 55m above sea level. The area is renowned for its many large Sycamore trees. The Israeli settlements of Nisanit, Elei Sinai, and Dugit that were in close proximity to Beit Lahia were evacuated during August 2005.Beit Lahia بيت لاهي Beit Lahiya Bayt Lahiya
Thawban said, "The Prophet said: 'Three men will be killed at the place where your treasure is. Each of them will be the son of a Khalifah, and none of them will get hold of the treasure. Then black banners will come out of the east...' If you see him, go and give him your allegiance, even if you have to crawl over ice, because he is the Khalifah of Allah, the Mahdi.'"
Ref : This hadith is reported in Sunan Ibn Majah vol 3 number 4084 in 'Kitab al-Fitan, Baab Kharuj al-Mahdi' and 'Mustadrak' al-Hakim. Hakim classified it as saheeh on the conditions set by al-Bukhari and Muslim and al-Dhahabi agreed. Ibn Kathir wrote about it in his 'al-Nihaya (al-Fitan wa al-Malahim)' that its isnaad is 'qawii' (strong). al-Albani considers some of the chains as unacceptable, but writes the hadith is correct in meaning without the addition, 'he is the Khalifah of Allah, the Mahdi.' He rates the isnaad of Ibn Majah from 'Alqama from Ibn Mas'ud as hasan which does not have the words, 'khalifa-tullah.' He then goes on to discuss why this addition is not acceptable. ('Silsilah al-Ahadeeth al-Da'eefah wa al-Maudu'a', vol 1, p. 195-198, Hadith #85)
You’ll join hands with a Christian group and war with another. You’ll gain victoryAt that time, you will be present in a plain of great mountains with plenty of trees. In the meantime, the Christians will raise the crucifix and refer the victory to it. At this, a Muslim will become angry, and will pull the crucifix down, at which, the Christians will unite breaking all treaties with the Muslims.The Christians will demand their wanted people, to which the Muslims will answer:"By Allah! They are our brothers. We will never hand them over. This will start the war. One-third Muslims will run away. Their ‘Tawbah’ (Repentance) will never be accepted.. One-third will be killed.They will be the best 'Shaheed' (martyrs) near Allah The remaining one-third will gain victory
(6708,6709 Ibn Hibban)
At the time, when the Muslim Ummah will have abundance of wealth, gold and silver, the Muslims will be extremely belittled, weak and helpless. The enemy nations will invite each other to pounce upon them as hungry people invite one another for food. The Sahabah (R.A) asked with utter worry, "O Prophet of Allah! Would we be very few in number?" Prophet Muhammad (S) replied: "No! You’d be as great in quantity as the foam of the sea is, seen wherever the eye can reach. But you’ll be overtaken by ‘wahn’." The Sahabah (R.A) asked, "O Prophet of Allah! What is ‘wahn’?" He (S) replied: "Love of this world and fear of death!" You’ll join hands with a Christian group and war with another. You’ll gain victory. At that time, you will be present in a plain of great mountains with plenty of trees. In the meantime, the Christians will raise the crucifix and refer the victory to it. At this, a Muslim will become angry, and will pull the crucifix down, at which, the Christians will unite breaking all treaties with the Muslims.The Christians will demand their wanted people, to which the Muslims will answer:"By Allah! They are our brothers. We will never hand them over." This will start the war. One-third Muslims will run away. Their ‘Tawbah’ (Repentance) will never be accepted. One-third will be killed. They will be the best 'Shaheed' (martyrs) near Allah. The remaining one-third will gain victory, until, under the leadership of Imam Mehdi, they will fight against Kufr (non-believers)..
Reported on a chain of transmission on the authority of Kaab "The sign of the Mahdi's appearance will be war banners coming from the west, lead by a man with a disability from "Kinda"
(Nuaym son of Hammad, Al-Fitan page 205)
*Note: Genreral Richard Meyers, commander of the US Joint chiefs of staff decalared the war on Afghanistan in October 2001 on crutches.
There is a Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) about the symbols of the Judgment day that people with the Black Flag will rise up from the land of Khurasaan to fight against Kuffar Alliances in the Final War of Armageddon.
Geographically, Syria is a land of great diversity that includes coastline, mountainous areas, steppe, and desert.
Geographically, Syria can be divided into four regions. A narrow fertile coastal plain runs along the Mediterranean border and extends inland to a narrow range of mountains and hills. The coastal climate is moderate with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters; the average annual rainfall is this area is between 30 and 40 inches. The mountainous region runs from north to south, parallel to the Mediterranean Sea. The interior semiarid plains region is found to the east of the mountains. Much of the southeastern part of Syria is desert region that extends to the borders of Jordan and Iraq; most of the desert is a rock and gravel plateau that receives less than four inches of rain annually and is extremely hot.
You will make a firm truce with the Christians (al-Rum) until you and they wage a campaign against an enemy that is attacking them. You will be granted victory and great spoils. Then you will alight in a plain surrounded by hills. There, someone among the Christians shall say: 'The Cross has overcome!' whereupon someone among the Muslims shall say: 'Nay, Allah has overcome!' and shall go and break the cross.
The Christians shall kill him, then the Muslims shall take up their arms and the two sides shall fall upon each other.
Allah shall grant martyrdom to that group of Muslims. After that the Christians shall say to their leader: 'We shall relieve you of the Arabs,' and they shall gather up for the great battle (al-malhama). They shall come to you under eighty flags, each flag gathering 12,000 troops." [approx. 1 million]
Narrated with sound chains from Dhu Mikhbar al-Najashi by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who declared it sahih and al-Dhahabi concurred. See Shaykh Shu`ayb Arna'ut's documentation of this hadith in his edition of Sahih Ibn Hibban (15:101-103 #6708-6709).
Narrated Abu Hurayrah: Allah's Apostle (peace_be_upon_him) said: The Last Hour will not come until the Romans land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq [north of Aleppo( a city in northen syria).]A n army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people on Earth at that time will come from Medina (to oppose them). When they arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans will say: Do not stand between us and those (Muslims) who took prisoners from among us. Let us fight them. The Muslims will say: Nay, by Allah, we shall never turn aside from you and from our brethren so that you may fight them.
They will then fight and a third (part) of the army, whom Allah will never forgive, will run away. A third (part of the army), which will be constituted of excellent martyrs in Allah's eyes, would be killed. The third who will never be put on trial will win and they will be the conquerors of Constantinople. (and/or Rome)
As they are busy in distributing the spoils of war (amongst themselves) after hanging their swords by the olive trees, Satan will cry: The Dajjal has taken your place among your families. They will then come out, but it will be of no avail. When they reach Syria, he will come out while they are still preparing themselves for battle, drawing up the ranks. Certainly, the time of prayer will come and then ‘Eessa (peace_be_upon_him), son of Maryam, descends and will lead them in prayer. When the enemy of Allah sees him, it will (disappear) just as salt dissolves in water and if he (‘Eessa) were not to confront them at all, even then it would dissolve completely. Allah would kill them by his hand and he would show them their blood on his lance.
(Muslim Book No: 40 No: 6924)
*Note: This is the part of the victorious army from Afghanistan-Taliban war facing similar fate in three categories,here connecting the old victorios army's fate with the current victorious army.Hence the victoriours army never lost continuty in its entirety.